Hitomi Oda, Akira Miyauchi, Yasuhiro Ito, Hisanori Sasai, Hiroo Masuoka, Tomonori Yabuta, Mitsuhiro Fukushima, Takuya Higashiyama, Minoru Kihara, Kaoru Kobayashi, Akihiro Miya
Vol 64 No. 1
The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing rapidly in many countries, resulting in rising societal costs of the care of thyroid cancer. We reported that the active surveillance of low-risk papillary microcarcinoma had less unfavorable events than immediate surgery, while the oncological outcomes of these managements were similarly excellent. Here we calculated the medical costs of these two managements. We created a model of the flow of these managements, based on our previous study. The flow and costs include the step of diagnosis, surgery, prescription of medicine, recurrence, salvage surgery for recurrence, and care for 10 years after the diagnosis. The costs were calculated according to the typical clinical practices at Kuma Hospital performed under the Japanese Health Care Insurance System. If conversion surgeries were not considered, the ‘simple cost’ of active surveillance for 10 years was 167,780 yen/patient. If there were no recurrences, the ‘simple cost’ of immediate surgery was calculated as 794,770 yen/patient to 1,086,070 yen/patient, depending on the type of surgery and postoperative medication. The ‘simple cost’ of surgery was 4.7 to 6.5 times the ‘simple cost’ of surveillance. When conversion surgeries and recurrence were considered, the ‘total cost’ of active surveillance for 10 years became 225,695 yen/patient. When recurrence were considered, the ‘total cost’ of immediate surgery was 928,094 yen/patient, which was 4.1 times the ‘total cost’ of the active surveillance. At Kuma Hospital in Japan, the 10-year total cost of immediate surgery was 4.1 times expensive than active surveillance.
Takahiro Takase, Akinobu Nakamura, Hideaki Miyoshi, Chiho Yamamoto, Tatsuya Atsumi
Vol 64 No. 3
In this study, we investigated the ameliorating effects of ipragliflozin on fatty liver in patients with type 2 diabetes. The factors that influenced the amelioration of fatty liver were also examined. Analysis included data of 21 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes obtained from our prospective observational study. After obtaining patients’ informed consent, once-daily ipragliflozin (50 mg/day) was given for 16 weeks. In addition to several clinical parameters, body composition was also compared before and after 16 weeks of treatment. The extent of fatty liver was estimated using a fatty liver index (FLI). After 16 weeks, FLI significantly decreased, from 70.1 ± 19.4 to 60.3 ± 25.5 (p = 0.0009) as well as levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, body weight, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and fat mass. To reveal the factors influencing the FLI changes observed on ipragliflozin treatment, correlations between changes in FLI and several other measured parameters were examined. Changes in FPG (correlation coefficient = 0.4683, p = 0.0323) and HbA1c (correlation coefficient = 0.4383, p = 0.0469) showed significant positive correlations with changes in FLI. On the other hand, no correlations of changes in FLI were observed with body weight, VAT, SAT nor fat mass. In conclusion, ipragliflozin ameliorated FLI in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Improvement in FLI was associated with that of glucose intolerance.
Koji Shiraishi, Hideyasu Matsuyama
Vol 64 No. 2
Microdissection testicular sperm extraction and intracytoplasmic sperm injection have made it possible for men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) to conceive a child. A majority of men cannot produce sperm because spermatogenesis per se is believed to be “irreversibly” disturbed. For these men, it has been thought that any hormonal therapy will be ineffective. Further understandings of endocrinological regulation of spermatogenesis are needed and LH or FSH receptor knock out (KO) mice have revealed the roles of gonadotropin separately. Spermatogenesis has been shown to shift during evolution from FSH to LH dominance because LH receptor KO causes infertility while FSH receptor KO does not. High concentrations of intratesticular testosterone secreted from Leydig cells, ranging from 100- to 1,000-fold higher than in the systemic circulation, has pivotal roles during spermatogenesis. This is especially important during spermiogenesis, a post-meiotic step for progression from round to elongating spermatids. Sertoli cells are the target of FSH and have numerous androgen receptors, indicating that Sertoli cells are regulated by FSH and the paracrine functions of testosterone. In combination with Leydig cell-derived growth factors, particularly epidermal growth factor-like growth factors, Sertoli cells support spermatogenesis, especially at proximal levels of spermatogenesis (e.g., spermatogonial proliferation). Taken together, the current knowledge from human studies indicating that testosterone optimization by clomiphene, hCG and/or aromatase inhibitors and high dose hCG/FSH treatment can, at least in part, improve spermatogenesis in NOA. Accordingly hormonal therapy may open a therapeutic window for sperm production in selected patients.
Tetsurou Satoh, Osamu Isozaki, Atsushi Suzuki, Shu Wakino, Tadao Iburi, Kumiko Tsuboi, Naotetsu Kanamoto, Hajime Otani, Yasushi Furukawa, Satoshi Teramukai, Takashi Akamizu
Vol 63 No. 12
Thyroid storm is an endocrine emergency which is characterized by multiple organ failure due to severe thyrotoxicosis, often associated with triggering illnesses. Early suspicion, prompt diagnosis and intensive treatment will improve survival in thyroid storm patients. Because of its rarity and high mortality, prospective intervention studies for the treatment of thyroid storm are difficult to carry out. We, the Japan Thyroid Association and Japan Endocrine Society taskforce committee, previously developed new diagnostic criteria and conducted nationwide surveys for thyroid storm in Japan. Detailed analyses of clinical data from 356 patients revealed that the mortality in Japan was still high (∼11%) and that multiple organ failure and acute heart failure were common causes of death. In addition, multimodal treatment with antithyroid drugs, inorganic iodide, corticosteroids and beta-adrenergic antagonists has been suggested to improve mortality of these patients. Based on the evidence obtained by nationwide surveys and additional literature searches, we herein established clinical guidelines for the management of thyroid storm. The present guideline includes 15 recommendations for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and organ failure in the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and hepato-gastrointestinal tract, admission criteria for the intensive care unit, and prognostic evaluation. We also proposed preventive approaches to thyroid storm, roles of definitive therapy, and future prospective trial plans for the treatment of thyroid storm. We hope that this guideline will be useful for many physicians all over the world as well as in Japan in the management of thyroid storm and the improvement of its outcome.
Su Wang, Qichao Yang, Shuqin Yu, Ruirong Pan, Dan Jiang, Yuanxin Liu, Hao Hu, Wenjun Sun, Xiafei Hong, Haoying Xue, Weiyun Qian, Dong Wang, Libin Zhou, Chaoming Mao, Guoyue Yuan
Vol 63 No. 4
Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) has been recently characterized as a potent insulin sensitizer that regulates adipose tissue remodeling, but the physiological role of FGF1 remains unclear. This study measured serum FGF1 levels for the first time in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and further explored the correlations between FGF1 levels and various metabolic parameters in T2DM. Serum FGF1 levels were determined using ELISA in age-, sex- and BMI- matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n=80) and newly diagnosed T2DM (n=80). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C), blood lipids, and insulin secretion were also measured. Insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell function were assessed by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and homeostasis model assessment of beta cell function (HOMA-β), respectively. Serum FGF1 levels were significantly higher in T2DM patients than in normal glucose tolerance subjects (74.52 [55.91∼101.34] vs. 60.31 [48.99∼83.91] pg/mL; P<0.05). In addition, serum FGF1 level positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h post-OGTT glucose (2h PG), and HbA1C (all P values <0.05) in T2DM subjects. Multivariate regression analyses showed that BMI and HbA1C were the independent factors influencing serum FGF1 levels. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that serum FGF1 was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes (P<0.01). Circulating concentrations of FGF1 are significantly increased in T2DM patients. Our results suggest that FGF1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of T2DM.
Reference values of serum calcitonin with calcium stimulation tests by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay before/after total thyroidectomy in Japanese patients with thyroid diseases other than medullary thyroid carcinoma
Minoru Kihara, Akira Miyauchi, Takumi Kudo, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, Akihiro Miya
Vol 63 No. 7
Calcitonin is a very sensitive tumor marker of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). MTC patients usually have very high values of serum calcitonin that can be used to diagnose the disease. To improve the diagnostic sensitivity in family members with small MTCs and to evaluate the postoperative biochemical cure status, a calcium stimulation test is widely used. Serum calcitonin has been measured using several methods, but in Japan, only an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) is currently performed to determine serum calcitonin. Reference values for the calcium stimulation test using an ECLIA have not been reported. Here we conducted a calcium stimulation tests in 26 patients without MTC before and after total thyroidectomy. Preoperatively, the basal calcitonin values of all patients were within normal limits and increased to a mean of 14.4 pg/mL after calcium stimulation. We transformed the peak values before total thyroidectomy to a logarithmic distribution and calculated the normalized mean ± 1.96× standard deviation; the reference upper limit was thus expressed. In the female patients with non-MTC, the reference upper limit was 67.6 pg/mL. In all patients, the calcium stimulation test results after total thyroidectomy showed undetectable basal and stimulated calcitonin values (<0.5 pg/mL). This is the first study to determine reference values to be used for the calcium stimulation test along with an ECLIA in non-MTC patients. We propose that female patients are regarded as biochemically cured or normal when the stimulated calcitonin values by ECLIA are <67.6 pg/mL before surgery and <0.5 pg/mL after total thyroidectomy.
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